While back pain is exceedingly common, it is equally challenging to diagnose, since there is no established guideline or protocol to evaluate this problem. Besides, the typical setting of a 15-minute doctor’s visit is usually not enough to explain, understand, and evaluate everything that’s going on in your achy back.
Diagnosing the root cause of back pain requires time, physician expertise, and collaboration between different medical professionals, such as primary care doctors, physical therapists, physiatrists, and orthopedic physicians, to name a few.
The specific source of pain can be challenging to identify
The potential underlying causes of back pain are many
Problems may occur within anatomical structures, such as spinal nerve roots, lower back muscles, vertebral bones and joints, intervertebral discs, and/or organs in the abdominal cavity.
In other cases, your nerves may send abnormal pain signals to your brain, resulting in neuropathic back pain.
Back pain may also be influenced by psychosocial factors, such as stress, depression, and/or anxiety.
Identifying the exact cause of a back problem may be difficult because of the presence of a combination of problems. For example, a patient may have a herniated disc and spinal stenosis at the same time, and the pain may originate from either of these conditions. But the treatment options vary for both and providing an inaccurate treatment will not help in eliminating the cause of pain.
Diagnostic tests have limited value
There are numerous potential issues when it comes to diagnostic tests. But the preeminent problem is that there is no single diagnostic test that can provide an accurate back pain diagnosis. So then, many diagnostic tests have limited value, and some, such as diagnostic nerve block injections may also provide false-positive or false-negative results.2
Of course, this does not mean that your medical professional cannot diagnose your back condition. Certain common conditions, like a lumbar herniated disc that leads to sciatica symptoms, can often be diagnosed quickly and accurately through a variety of clinical tests, questions, and medical imaging scans.
But the inadequacy of any single diagnostic test helps to explain why you may receive different diagnoses from different doctors.
Pain is a subjective experience and varies widely
Pain is a personal experience for each individual. What may be mild back pain to one person can feel severe and overwhelming to another. Subsequently, the same condition can require completely different kinds and levels of treatment for different people.3 For example, over-the-counter medication and/or exercise may be sufficient to treat the pain from a common back condition for most people. But your subjective experience may dictate that you need a more robust treatment plan to handle your intense pain, such as an epidural steroid injection.